Healthcare in Estonia is supervised by the Ministry of Social Affairs and funded by general taxation through the National Health Service.  Private clinics are separate system and it is funded by separate payments of their clients or by private insurance companies via paid voluntary health insurance (known as ДМС - DMS). 1. In some systems, patients can also take private health insurance but choose to receive care at public hospitals, if allowed by the private insurer. Of that, approximately 65% was government expenditure. The top 30 chapters hold 73% of the beneficiaries and 75% of resources for all Obras Sociales schemes and the monthly average a beneficiary receives varies from $5–80 per month. According to the UAE government, total expenditures on health care from 1996 to 2003 were US$436 million. Similarly with specialist consultants. In the US, 12% to 16% of the citizens do not have health insurance. Persons with incomes above the prescribed compulsory insurance level may decide to remain in the sickness fund system, which a majority do, or opt out & take private insurance. Public healthcare is free for all and entirely funded through taxes. Anyone can go to a physician for no fee and the public health system entitles each Dane to his/her own doctor. In the early 2000s, the emphasis of medical and paramedical training, which was conducted in five medical schools, was preparation of primary-care personnel to overcome shortages resulting from the communist system's long-term emphasis on training specialists. , Outside urban areas, little health care is available in Sudan, helping account for a relatively low average life expectancy of 57 years and an infant mortality rate of 69 deaths per 1,000 live births, low by standards in Middle Eastern but not African countries. The Syrian Ba'ath Party has placed an emphasis on health care, but funding levels have not been able to keep up with demand or maintain quality. Access to health care is enhanced by the requirement that doctors and dentists work in public health for at least five years. In April 2017 Venezuela's health ministry reported that maternal mortality jumped by 65% in 2016 and that the number of infant deaths rose by 30%. In India, the hospitals and clinics are run by government, charitable trusts and by private organizations. As of late 2004, some 4 million persons in the South had been internally displaced and more than 2 million had died or been killed as a result of two decades of war. July 22, 2009.  Health care services are particularly scarce in rural areas; only 25 percent of rural areas are covered by health services, as compared with 80 percent of urban areas. Sweden also has a smaller private health care sector, mainly in larger cities or as centers for preventive health care financed by employers.  Poland's expenditure on healthcare was 6.7% of GDP in 2012 or $900 per capita. In 2000, Switzerland topped all European countries’ health care expenditure when calculated as per capita expenditure in US dollar purchasing parity terms.. , Norway has a government run and government financed universal health care system, covering  Basic services are available for free throughout the country while regional list of services is available for free only in a region of permanent residence. Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin announced a new large-scale health care reform in 2011 and pledged to allocate more than 300 billion rubles ($10 billion) in the next few years to improve health care in the country. , According to WHO, total health care expenditure in 2005 was 9% of GDP and paid 84% by government, 15% by private out-of-pocket and ≈1% by other private sources.. (Sept. 2, 2009)http://www.boston.com/bostonglobe/ideas/articles/2009/07/05/healthy_examples_plenty_of_countries_get_healthcare_right/, Danilova, Maria. Hospital beds in 1988 totaled 932. Historically, health insurance in Nigeria can be applied to a few instances: government-paid health care provided and financed for all citizens, health care provided by government through a special health insurance scheme for government employees and private firms entering contracts with private health care providers. In 2001 general government expenditures on health constituted 6.8 percent of total general government expenditures and 4.3 percent of gross domestic product (GDP), totaling only about US$4 per capita at an average exchange rate. The SSN covers general practice (distinct between adult and pediatric practice), outpatient and inpatient treatments, and the cost of most (but not all) drugs and sanitary ware. Health insurance funds will reimburse medical costs.  Lack of legal status for foreigners and military service in the Russian Armed Forces for Russian citizens are the only reasons for refusal to obtain or use OMS insurance policy provided that it is not allowed to have two OMS insurance policies. Failing healthcare systems, public health services, surveillance, and proactive care from the government to the population are visible in large quantities. PHCs are non-existent in most places, due to poor pay and scarcity of resources. Billing by doctors is complex and varies from province to province. Chile has maintained a dual health care system in which its citizens can voluntarily opt for coverage by either the public National Health Insurance Fund or any of the country's private health insurance companies.