In March, the 2nd Italian SS "Vendetta" Battalion and 29th Italian SS Rifle Battalion were sent to fight against the Allied forces at the Anzio/Nettuno beach. The Germans brought in new troops from Rome. It used just two infantry divisions with no armour. After a month of heavy fighting, He wanted to get around German forces on the Winter Line. An expeditionary force commanded by U.S. Major General John P. Lucas secured a beachhead near Anzio and Nettuno on Italy’s west coast, but his divisions were quickly contained by German Field Marshall Albert Kesselring. A series of furious attacks failed to break the Allied line in what one historian has described as “a charge of the Light Brigade without the horses…sheer slaughter.”. They wanted to capture a beach near Anzio, move forward, and be ready to go to Rome. A succession of attacks resulted in heavy casualties on both sides, though no budge in the stalemate for four months. Von Mackensen's 14th Army took command of the defence on January 25. General Harold Alexander had thought of a plan using five divisions. The 1944 Battle of Anzio stemmed from the Allied attempt to draw German troops off the Gustav Line during Operation Shingle. The German commander in the Put his guns around the beach. Operation Shingle was planned by Winston Churchill in December 1943. The Germans 362nd Infantry Division lost 50% of its fighting strength. The Battle of Anzio, which is also called Operation Shingle was an Allied sea landing in the Italian Campaign against German forces of Anzio and Nettuno, Italy. Hitler’s aim was to split the Allies in their drive toward Germany. He planned to land two divisions at Anzio and capture Rome.[2][3]. This page was last changed on 11 August 2018, at 19:34. If troops were left on the Gustav Line, then the Allies could try to capture Rome. [10] The first day's fighting was hard: 1st Armored Division lost 100 tanks and 3rd Infantry Division had 955 casualties. From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The Germans had 40,000 troops in defensive positions.[4]. The Germans also flooded the marsh with salt water. Hitler ordered no defence of Rome.[12]. All rights reserved. The Allied planning for their attack was detailed. After the war, some experts said the Anzio plan was not good. the Allies finally got past the beaches in May. At 05:45 on May 23, 1944, 1,500 Allied artillery pieces started bombing. The Allies planned an attack in May. Both sides realised that no result could be achieved until the spring. The arrival of U.S. 45th Infantry Division and U.S. 1st Armored Division, brought Allied forces total on the beach to 69,000 men, 508 guns and 208 tanks by January 29. The Germans built a new defence line, the Caesar C line. [8] Also on February 18 while returning to Anzio the light cruiser HMS Penelope was struck by two torpedoes and sunk with a loss of 417 men.[source?]. This would include attacking the Gustav Line, which was called Operation Diadem. Allied forces by this time were 76,400 Intended as a daring outflanking move that would open up the way to the capture of Rome, the Anzio landings degenerated into World War II deadlock: the Allies unable to drive forward from their bridgehead and the Germans without the means to push the invaders back into the sea. The landing … Making a sea landing in a marshland needed to be done quickly. A succession of attacks resulted in heavy casualties on both sides, though no budge in th… Alexander believed that if the expeditionary force seized the Alban Hills northeast of Anzio, it could block German resupply of Cassino, thus compelling Kesselring to abandon the Gustav Line and retreat to the Apennines. One group moved to Cisterna. Then he wanted to attack Rome. Then Allied infantry and armour moved forward. The 1944 Battle of Anzio stemmed from the Allied attempt to draw German troops off the Gustav Line during Operation Shingle. In the evening, the Allies turned ninety degrees to the left. Three days after the landings, the beach was surrounded by three divisions: The 4th Parachute Division to the west, the 3rd Panzer Grenadier Division to the center, the Hermann Göring Panzer Division to the east. On June 2 the Caesar Line broke and the 14th Army pulled back through Rome. https://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/battle-of-anzio. By the end of 1943 the Italian campaign had become a stalemate as Field Marshall Albert Kesselring’s German army group stopped the Allied advance cold at Cassino. In May, U.S. 36th Infantry Division had arrived at Anzio. Parts of eight German divisions were put around the beach. The U.S. Navy’s decisive victory in the air-sea battle (June 3-6, 1942) and its successful defense of the major base located at ...read more. One of the problems with the plan was there was mot enough landing ships. Lucas was relieved of command even though he had been given a mission he had no practical possibility of carrying out. The northwestern U.S. Force ("Yellow Beach"): This force attacked the. By early February German forces in Fourteenth Army had 100,000 troops. Then he wanted to attack Rome. The Reader’s Companion to Military History. During the Battle of Dunkirk from May 26 to June 4, 1940, some 338,000 British Expeditionary Force (BEF) and other Allied troops were evacuated from Dunkirk to ...read more, Called “the greatest American battle of the war” by Winston Churchill, the Battle of the Bulge in the Ardennes region of Belgium was Adolf Hitler’s last major offensive in World War II against the Western Front. The Allies planned to attack from the south. British 5th Division and 1st Division were to attack along the coast. The U.S. 45th Infantry, 1st Armored and 3rd Infantry Divisions would attack the German 362nd and 715th Infantry Divisions. The Allies finally broke out of the beachhead in late May, facilitating the advance that led to the eventual capture of Rome. ...read more, The Battle of Okinawa (April 1, 1945-June 22, 1945) was the last major battle of World War II, and one of the bloodiest. Edited by Robert Cowley and Geoffrey Parker. There were five German divisions. U.S. 34th Infantry Division arrived at Anzio in the same month. The total defending Germans had risen to 71,500.[5][6]. Copyright © 1996 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Lucas recognized that the Anzio force could not hold both the Alban Hills and a vital logistical lifeline to the port of Anzio, and elected merely to establish a beachhead outside Anzio and Nettuno. Then they got ready to defend the Gothic Line. On the new attack little progress was made until 1st Armored arrived on May 29. © 2020 A&E Television Networks, LLC. By midnight, 36,000 soldiers and 3,200 vehicles had landed on the beaches. After a four-month stalemate during which British and American losses totaled seven thousand killed, thirty-six thousand wounded or missing, and forty-four thousand hospitalized from various nonbattle injuries and sickness, the siege of Anzio finally ended on May 23, 1944, when the Allies launched a breakout offensive. The attack was commanded by American Major General John P. Lucas. [11], In the afternoon of May 25 Cisterna was captured by the 3rd Division.