Some women may add a niqab which cover the mouth and nose and only leaves the eyes exposed. [238] Similarly, the sale of alcoholic beverages is regulated. [25], Dubai is thought to have been established as a fishing village in the early 18th century[26] and was, by 1822, a town of some 700–800 members of the Bani Yas tribe and subject to the rule of Sheikh Tahnun bin Shakhbut of Abu Dhabi. The New York Times described Dubai as "the kind of city where you might run into Michael Jordan at the Buddha Bar or stumble across Naomi Campbell celebrating her birthday with a multiday bash". [239] Al-Wasl have the second-most number of championships in the UAE League, after Al Ain. [237], Arabic cuisine is very popular and is available everywhere in the city, from the small shawarma diners in Deira and Al Karama to the restaurants in Dubai's hotels. Because of the touristic approach of many Dubaites in the entrepreneurial sector and the high standard of living, Dubai's culture has gradually evolved towards one of luxury, opulence, and lavishness with a high regard for leisure-related extravagance. [95] General crimes have decreased since 2013, registering around 0.2 by the end of 2017. There are 34 Indian curriculum schools in the emirate,[264] most of which offer the CBSE, and just a handful the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education Indian syllabus. [151] Indians, followed by Britons and Pakistanis are the top foreign investors in Dubai realty. [177] Dubai then won the right to host Expo 2020 on 27 November 2013. Precipitation, however, has been increasing in the last few decades, with accumulated rain reaching 110.7 mm (4.36 in) per year. D Long, B Reich. [citation needed], A monorail line connecting the Palm Jumeirah to the mainland opened on 30 April 2009. Dubai also hosts the traditional rugby union tournament Dubai Sevens, part of the Sevens World Series Event pictures of Rugby 7 Dubai 2015. [90] Freedom of speech in Dubai is limited, with both residents and citizens facing severe sanctions from the government for speaking out against the royal family or local laws and culture. [166] As of 2018, Dubai is the fourth most-visited city in the world based on the number of international visitors and the fastest growing, increasing by a 10.7% rate. The ruler, His Highness Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, is also the Vice-President and Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates and member of the Supreme Council of the Union (SCU). Dubai produces about 50,000 barrels of oil per day. [25], An early mention of Dubai is in 1095 in the Book of Geography by the Andalusian-Arab geographer Abu Abdullah al-Bakri. [118] There are over 100,000 British expatriates in Dubai, by far the largest group of Western expatriates in the city. Dubai signed the General Maritime Treaty of 1820 along with other Trucial States, following the British punitive expedition against Ras Al Khaimah of 1819, which also led to the bombardment of the coastal communities of the Persian Gulf. Each of the emirates has its ruler and flag, and together the rulers form the Federal Supreme Council, with one of the rulers serving as the president … [80][81][82] Some of the 250,000 foreign labourers in the city have been alleged to live in conditions described by Human Rights Watch as "less than humane". A longer-term assessment of Dubai's property market, however, showed depreciation; some properties lost as much as 64% of their value from 2001 to November 2008. However, the topography of Dubai is significantly different from that of the southern portion of the UAE in that much of Dubai's landscape is highlighted by sandy desert patterns, while gravel deserts dominate much of the southern region of the country. During the 1970s, Dubai continued to grow from revenues generated from oil and trade, even as the city saw an influx of immigrants fleeing the Lebanese civil war. In a letter to the Sultan of Muscat in 1911, Butti laments, 'Misery and poverty are raging among them, with the result that they are struggling, looting and killing among themselves.'[34]. UAE labour minister Ali al-Kaabi said: "Labourers will be allowed to form unions. [218] It is the first monorail in the Middle East. Dubai is also known as the City of Gold because a major part of the economy is based on gold trades, with Dubai's total gold trading volumes in H1 2011 reaching 580 tonnes, with an average price of US$1,455 per troy ounce. The port was inaugurated on 5 October 1972, although its berths were each pressed into use as soon as they had been built. [209][210][211], Dubai International Airport (IATA: DXB), the hub for Emirates, serves the city of Dubai and other emirates in the country. The eastern section of the city forms the locality of Deira and is flanked by the emirate of Sharjah in the east and the town of Al Aweer in the south. [217] UK-based international service company Serco is responsible for operating the metro. [125] The Constitution of the United Arab Emirates provides for freedom of religion. Those migrant workers had to rely on food donations and stayed hungry without the help of charities, while they waited for work and to get paid. There is a sizeable community of Somalis numbering around 30,000, as well as other communities of various nationalities. For the emirate, see, The Government and Politics of the Middle East and North Africa. Football and cricket are the most popular sports in Dubai. [38] An airport of sorts (a runway built on salt flats) was established in Dubai in the 1950s and, in 1959, the emirate's first hotel, the Airlines Hotel, was constructed. It’s an Emirates of the UAE.The UAE founded in 1973 when all seven emirates came together and decided to merge themselves into a single country. [240], The inaugural Dubai Food Festival was held between 21 February to 15 March 2014. [citation needed], Arabic is the national and official language of the United Arab Emirates. Hatta, a minor exclave of the emirate, is surrounded on three sides by Oman and by the emirates of Ajman (in the west) and Ras Al Khaimah (in the north). In 1902 the company's vessels made 21 visits to Dubai and from 1904 on,[31] the steamers called fortnightly – in 1906, trading seventy thousand tonnes of cargo. Many were trapped in desperate situations in crowded labor camps with no salary or any other financial source. [citation needed], Dubai lies directly within the Arabian Desert. Groups that do not have their own buildings are allowed to use the facilities of other religious organisations or worship in private homes. Before 1973, they were independent states. [127], Non-Muslim groups can own their own houses of worship, where they can practice their religion freely, by requesting a land grant and permission to build a compound. [258] The medium of instruction in public schools is Arabic with emphasis on English as a second language, while most of the private schools use English as their medium of instruction. Currently only the Swiss International Scientific School in Dubai claims to offer parallel streams in different languages - bi-lingual English/French or English/ German.