A 2nd Lieutenant, Hiroo Onoda, held out until 1974 before surrendering in the Philippines. [54] On 22 June 1945, Deputy Commissar of the NKVD Ivan Serov reported to the head of the NKVD Lavrentiy Beria the arrest of "more than 600" alleged Werwolf members,[56] mostly aged 15 to 17 years. [citation needed] However, as it became clear that the reputedly impregnable Alpine Fortress, from which operations were to be directed by the Nazi leadership if the rest of Germany was occupied, was yet another delusion, Werwolf was converted into a terrorist organisation in the last few weeks of the war. The leading Werwolf assassin is revealed to be an actual Werewolf, and she is slain with a silver knife. [53], In the Soviet occupation zone, thousands of youths were arrested as "Werwolves". This was highlighted by Operation Ketsugō, which was the planned defense of the Japanese homeland. [51] [50], The German resistance movement was successfully suppressed in 1945. Both of their economies and war machines were totally destroyed. Löns wrote that the title was a dual reference to the fact that the peasants put up a fighting defense (sich wehren, see "Bundeswehr" – Federal Defense) and to the protagonist's surname of Wulf, but it also had obvious parallels with the word Werwölfe in that Wulf's men came to enjoy killing. Members of the unit usually wore the Wehrmacht uniform, but a few members disguised themselves as foresters and were used as outposts to report any approaching danger. The main emphasis was refocussing all German civilian heavy-industry with war-potential into an economy based on agriculture and light industry. It seems unlikely, mainly because it’s inconceivable that in the last 70 years the world’s free press would not have uncovered such a deception. Walls and roof are reinforced with lumber. [60] Hundreds of thousands of German last-ditch troops were kept in the makeshift Rheinwiesenlager for months, "mainly to prevent Werwolf activity". The Blast at the munitions depot in Brezno and the massacre of the German population, 31 July 1945. [25], The following day a CIC unit led by Captain Oscar M. Grimes of the 97th Infantry Division captured about two hundred Gestapo officers and men in hiding near Hof, Bavaria. The remains of some military organizations which collaborated with Axis forces continued with In the Shadow of the Sphynx: A History of Army Counterintelligence. "[49] The British were "mortified by such a suggestion", but the War Department took considerable account of Eisenhower's wishes. The Nazis had been in power since 1933. Its perceived influence went far beyond its actual operations, especially after the dissolution of the Nazi regime. [54] The arrested boys were either "shot at dawn" or interned in NKVD special camps. It was not long before rumors began to surface regarding the guerrilla operation. As for Japan, it would still have American troops based on its soil over 70 years later but as allies not as occupiers. [22][23] Krüger stated that in 1943 a school was created in Poland to train men in guerrilla warfare. Time ran an article containing speculation that the Germans would try to prolong the war indefinitely by going underground after their defeat. After marauding soldiers kill his family, Wulf organises his neighbors into a militia who pursue the soldiers mercilessly and execute any they capture, while referring to themselves as Wehrwölfe. The students were instructed to "stay behind, evade capture, and then harass and destroy supply lines of United States troops ... Special emphasis was put on gasoline and oil supplies. [6], In 1942 Adolf Hitler named the OKW and OKH field headquarters, at Vinnytsia in Ukraine, "Werwolf",[7] and Hitler on a number of occasions had used "Wolf" as a pseudonym for himself. [54] On 5 August 1946, Soviet minister for internal affairs Sergei Nikiforovich Kruglov reported that in the Soviet occupation zone, 332 "terrorist diversion groups and underground organizations" had been disclosed and "liquidated". The history of Werwolf was compared to the Iraqi insurgency by the Bush Administration and other Iraq War supporters. It was led by a charismatic and dedicated leader — Chancellor Adolf Hitler — who surrounded himself with idealistic and driven men like Joseph Goebbels, Hermann Goring, and Heinrich Himmler. [5] While Löns was not himself a Nazi (he died in 1914), his work became popular with the German far right, and the Nazis celebrated it. Mark Mazower, Hitler's Empire: How the Nazis Ruled Europe, at 546 (The Penguin Press 2008), "Hoo, Hoo, Hoo,' Lily the Werewolf Sings on Radio,", "NAZI UNDERGROUND IN ACTION, FOE SAYS: German Radio Asserts It Is Fighting in Occupied Areas, Issues 'Do or Die Order,'", Lens Claire, "La guerre au pays des frontières", unedited, "Werewolves' Nuisance Value May Be Great,". [57] In October 1945, Beria reported to Joseph Stalin the "liquidation" of 359 alleged Werwolf groups. Many Germans were scared of what the Soviets might do, as they were so ideologically opposed to everything the Nazis had stood for. Read another story from us: Did you Know in 1945, the Navy Secretly Handed Over 150 Warships to Russia for an Invasion of Japan. [62] Directives were loosely defined and implementation of reprisal was largely left to the preferences of the various armies, with the British seeming uncomfortable with those involving bloodshed. The situation truly was that dire. But these were on a very small scale, often just a few stubborn soldiers who could not believe the war was over. So why did Germany or Japan not do the same? Around 150,000 people died straight-away from the two blasts. Their armed forces were scattered and in disarray across South-East Asia. [34] He further cites U.S. Army intelligence reports that characterized Nazi partisans as "nomad bands"[35] and judged them as less serious threats than attacks by foreign slave laborers[36] and considered their sabotage and subversive activities to be insignificant. Training was to cover such topics as the production of home-made explosives, manufacturing detonators from everyday articles such as pencils and "a can of soup", and every member was to be trained in how to jump into a guard tower and strangle a sentry in one swift movement, using only a metre of string. Their hatred and their anger ... are deeply buried in their blood. [9], Rumors of a secret Nazi guerrilla organization began to surface soon after the Allied invasion of Normandy. Schwartzwalder believed that the Werwolf never constituted a threat to Allied personnel: ...the Bremen group of the Jugend had received its orders to organize as a Werwolf cell only about four days before the fall of the city. The unit was supplied with water by a brook passing through the area. Such an outcome did not leave the German people feeling as bitter and humiliated as they had after World War One. This had the effect of eradicating the leadership of the old regime, leaving no clear focal point for any resistance except for the Emperor himself. [60] In addition, civilians held by the U.S. climbed from 1000 in late March to 30,000 in late June, and more than 100,000 by the end of 1945. After it became clear, by March 1945, that the remaining German forces had no chance of stopping the Allied advance, Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels seized upon the idea of Werwolf, and began to foster the notion, primarily through radio broadcasts, that Werwolf was a clandestine guerrilla organization comprising irregular German partisans, similar to the many insurgency groups which the Germans had encountered in the nations they occupied during the war. Ultimately, Werwolf's propaganda value far outweighed its actual achievements. In effect, the Nazi political structure was totally dismantled by the end of the war and did not re-emerge as a political force elsewhere. The group was reported to be composed mainly of former members and officers of Hitler Youth units, ex-soldiers and drifters, and was described by an intelligence report as "a sentimental, adventurous, and romantically anti-social [movement]".