The most popular reason among females was also "For working at convenient times", with 4.38 million females (31.2 percent) choosing this reason, up 0.11 million people. The ratio of Japan's social security benefit expenditures to national income registered 29.8 percent. In terms of R&D expenditures in fiscal 2018, business enterprises spent 14.2 trillion yen (72.9 percent of total R&D expenditures), non-profit institutions and public organizations spent 1.6 trillion yen (8.3 percent), and universities and colleges spent 3.7 trillion yen (18.8 percent). In 2019, the reported number of penal code offenses was 748,559, a decrease of 68,779, or 8.4 percent compared to the previous year. To ensure fair judgments, Japan uses a three-tiered judicial system. In 2015, Tokyo Metropolis had the largest population of 13.52 million among Japan's 47 prefectures, followed in decreasing order by the prefectures of Kanagawa, Osaka, Aichi, and Saitama. Japan has a universal health insurance regime to ensure that anyone can receive necessary medical treatment. Commodities such as general machinery and electrical machinery contributed to the drop in exports. In October 1973, the fourth Middle East War led to the first oil crisis, triggering high inflation. Due to the topography of Honshu featuring a series of mountain ranges running from north to south, the northwest monsoon in the winter brings humid conditions with heavy precipitation (snow) to the Sea of Japan side of Honshu but comparatively dry weather with low precipitation to the Pacific Ocean side. From 2008 to 2018, national marriage and divorce rates declined. The per-capita cost of medical care for the latter-stage elderly averaged 944,561 yen for the year. The number of persons engaged at such establishments became 11.84 million. Declining Birth Rate and Aging Population, 6. There were 5.93 million one-person elderly households. To promote the use of buses, approaches to improve punctuality and speed using bus lanes and to make buses more convenient, such as by introducing a bus location system that provides locational information of buses as well as an IC card system that enables smooth bus rides, are being carried out. While expenditures such as defense expenses are administered solely by the national government, a large portion of expenditures that directly relate to the people's daily lives are disbursed chiefly through local governments. who entered a university or junior college in 2019 was 58.1 percent (57.6 percent of male and 58.7 percent of female graduates), including graduates from previous years. 19-1 Wakamatsu-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8668 Japan, ©1996 Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (JCN2000012020001), 3. This ratio gradually increased thereafter, reaching 27.7 percent in fiscal 1989. Many couples choose to express their love by tying the knot. The "2016 Economic Census for Business Activity" showed that 1.36 million wholesale and retail establishments were in operation in Japan. This marked the first decrease in five years in production, and the second consecutive year of decrease in shipments. Public investment accounted for 34.0 percent of total construction investment, while private investment accounted for 66.0 percent. In 2019, there were 56.5 million employees (excluding company executives), 21.65 million of whom, or 38.3 percent, were non-regular staff members. As of the end of March 2020, Japan Post Co., Ltd. had 24,341 post offices nationwide. In 2019, the percentages of male and female employed persons by occupation show that males were particularly prominent among "construction and mining workers" (97.6 percent) and "transport and machine operation workers" (96.8 percent). This represented about a tenfold increase from the 913 cases registered in 2000. Gas production was 1,688 petajoules in fiscal 2018, down 2.6 percent from the previous fiscal year. Subsequently, in July 2019, "Mozu-Furuichi Kofun Group: Mounded Tombs of Ancient Japan" were inscribed on the World Heritage List as Japan's 23rd World Heritage Site. Disposable income, calculated as income minus non-consumption expenditures such as taxes and social insurance contributions, was 476,645 yen.